Obesity surgery types have emerged through various experiments over the course of history. Modern-style obesity surgeries were first performed in the 1950s, and different techniques have been developed since then.
The primary goal of these techniques is the same: to help patients lose weight. However, the techniques differ in both their application and effects. Therefore, comprehensive assessments are conducted when determining the methods to be applied to patients.
What Are the Types of Obesity Surgery?
Obesity surgery is a treatment method with various types. Some of them are heavily used today, while others are not preferred due to different disadvantages. The commonly used methods that meet expectations today are as follows:
· Sleeve Gastrectomy
Sleeve gastrectomy, also known as gastric sleeve surgery, is one of the most commonly performed methods today. When it comes to stomach reduction surgery, this method is the first one that comes to mind.
With this method, about 80% of the stomach is removed and taken out of the body. The remaining parts are shaped with the help of a calibration tube. This leaves the remaining stomach portion resembling a tube. Sleeve gastrectomy reduces patients’ eating capacity and helps them lose weight.
· Gastric Bypass
With gastric bypass, about 90% of the stomach is bypassed. Then, a portion of the small intestine is bypassed and connected to the newly created stomach. The part of the stomach that is bypassed is later reconnected to the small intestine, but it no longer has a connection with the esophagus.
Gastric bypass reduces both eating and absorption capacity. Therefore, it allows patients to lose weight much more effectively. However, since absorption capacity is reduced, it is essential to have a healthy diet with vitamins and minerals in the diet.
· Mini Gastric Bypass
Mini gastric bypass begins with the reduction of the stomach, similar to sleeve gastrectomy. Later, a small part of the small intestine is bypassed and connected to the new stomach.
It is fundamentally similar to gastric bypass surgery. However, the reduction in absorption capacity is much lower here, reducing the risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
· Gastric Band
Gastric band, also known as gastric banding or lap-band procedure, is a method that aims to reduce eating capacity. However, since a portion of the stomach is not removed or bypassed, patients need to control their appetite.
Gastric banding is effective when patients adhere to the prescribed diet and exercise program. It helps patients feel full more quickly. However, if the diet and exercise plan are not followed, it may not yield the expected results.
· Gastric Balloon
The gastric balloon procedure involves placing a balloon in the stomach through the mouth to reduce the stomach’s volume. This procedure does not involve surgical intervention. Patients either swallow the balloon or it is inserted into the stomach through an endoscopic procedure. It is then inflated with saline solution or a different liquid.
The gastric balloon aims to reduce eating capacity. Depending on the patient’s condition, the balloon is removed after 2-6 months. It is a temporary treatment.
· Duodenal Switch
The duodenal switch involves reducing the stomach, similar to sleeve gastrectomy. The reduced stomach is connected to the second part of the small intestine, the ileum. The first part is bypassed. However, the first part is used to keep bile fluids in the digestive system.
The bypassed part of the small intestine is connected to the gallbladder, and it is connected to the small intestine before the junction of the small and large intestines.
How Are Obesity Surgeries Performed?
There are two methods used for obesity surgeries. Here are the details of these methods:
· Laparoscopic Surgery (Laparoscopy)
Laparoscopic surgery is commonly used today. In this method, only 0.5-1 cm incisions are made in the abdominal area. Medical instruments and a camera are then sent to the relevant area through these incisions.
The surgery is performed based on the images transmitted by the camera to the screen. After the surgery is completed, the incisions are closed.
The absence of large incisions shortens the recovery time and reduces the risks. However, it is crucial for the surgeon to be experienced in this method.
· Open Surgery
Open surgery is the traditional surgical method. In this method, a large incision is made in the abdominal area, and the necessary procedures are performed. Finally, the incision is closed to complete the procedure.
Due to the large incision, the recovery time is longer, and the risks are higher in this method. Therefore, open surgeries are not preferred unless necessary.