Obesity surgery and laparoscopy are methods developed to permanently overcome the condition of obesity and promote rapid recovery. Laparoscopic obesity surgery, which offers significant advantages over traditional surgical methods, is widely preferred today.
Types of Obesity Surgery
Obesity surgery is considered one of the most effective approaches for treating obesity. It is reserved for individuals who have not been able to lose weight through diet and exercise and face serious health risks due to obesity. Surgical procedures, also known as weight loss surgeries, are only performed on individuals who meet the necessary criteria.
There are different types of these surgeries, all with the common goal of reducing the size of the stomach. However, there are significant differences among these procedures in terms of their application methods and other details.
The choice of surgery depends on the patient’s overall health, expectations, and needs.
- Sleeve Gastrectomy
Sleeve gastrectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. In this surgery, approximately 80% of the patient’s stomach is removed, and the remaining portion is reshaped to resemble a tube.
During the procedure, a calibration tube is used to ensure proper shaping of the stomach and to prevent blockages. The remaining part of the stomach looks like a tube due to this tube, which is why it’s called sleeve gastrectomy.
As a result of sleeve gastrectomy, patients’ stomachs are reduced in size, leading to a feeling of fullness with less food. Additionally, as the stomach volume decreases, the secretion of hunger hormones also decreases, resulting in patients feeling less hungry.
In this procedure, only the size of the stomach is reduced, with no intervention in the stomach’s entry, exit, or other parts of the digestive system.
- Gastric Bypass
Gastric bypass is one of the most effective methods. This procedure is typically performed on super morbidly obese individuals and those who did not achieve their desired results with sleeve gastrectomy. It involves significant changes to the digestive system.
In this method, approximately 90% of the stomach is removed, leaving only about 10% connected to the esophagus. Then, a portion of the small intestine is bypassed and connected to this newly created stomach.
The old stomach is also connected to the lower part of the small intestine. This way, digestive secretions from the stomach continue to be utilized.
With gastric bypass, patients’ stomachs are significantly reduced in size, and the small intestine is also reduced. As a result, patients reach satiety with less food, and the absorbed nutrients are fewer, leading to reduced calorie intake and faster weight loss.
- Gastric Balloon
The gastric balloon is a non-surgical approach to obesity treatment. It can be applied through endoscopic methods or by swallowing the balloon, but it is considered a part of obesity surgery.
In this method, a balloon is placed in the patient’s stomach and then inflated with different fluids. When inflated, the average volume is 500-700 cc, significantly reducing the stomach’s volume. This results in patients feeling full with less food and losing weight.
The gastric balloon is a temporary treatment. The balloon placed in the stomach is removed after a certain period, with a maximum duration of 4-6 months. Leaving it in longer can lead to different issues.
Obesity Surgery Types and Laparoscopy
Laparoscopic Obesity Surgery
Laparoscopic obesity surgery enables obesity surgeries to be performed in a minimally invasive manner. In the past, these procedures were performed using traditional methods, which resulted in disadvantages in terms of both complication risks and recovery time.
With laparoscopy, surgeries are conducted in a minimally invasive manner, following these steps:
- Patients are placed under general anesthesia.
- Four or five small incisions measuring 0.5-1 cm are made in the abdominal area.
- A camera and medical instruments are inserted through these incisions.
- The operation is completed with the guidance of the camera’s transmitted images, and the incisions are closed.
As you can see, large incisions are not made in patients, reducing the risk and shortening the recovery time.
Laparoscopy is a highly effective method, but it is not suitable for all patients; it is only applied to eligible individuals. Although the majority of patients are candidates for this approach today, it should be remembered that it may not be suitable for some patients.
Additionally, it should be noted that some procedures initiated with laparoscopy may need to be converted to open surgery due to unforeseen circumstances. This is another important detail to consider.